هندبوک توربین های گازی

هندبوک توربین های گازی

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هندبوک توربین های گازی

Gas Turbine Handbook

Contents

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X Preface to the First Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii ForeWord to the First Edition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv. Part I Design: Theory and Practice 1. An Overview of Gas Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Gas Turbine Cycle in the Combined Cycle or Cogeneration Mode. Gas Turbine Performance. Gas Turbine Design Considerations. Categories of Gas Turbines. Major Gas Turbine Components. Fuel Type. Environmental Effects. Turbine Expander Section. Materials. Coatings. Gas Turbine Heat Recovery. Supplementary Firing of Heat Recovery Systems. Bibliography.

۲ Theoretical and Actual Cycle Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

The Brayton Cycle. Actual Cycle Analysis. Summation of Cycle Analysis. A General Overview of Combined Cycle Plants. Compressed Air Energy Storage Cycle. Power Augmentation. Summation of the Power Augmentation Systems. Bibliography.

۳ Compressor and Turbine Performance Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . 112

Turbomachine Aerothermodynamics. The Aerothermal Equations. Efficiencies. Dimensional Analysis. Compressor Performance Characteristics. Turbine Performance Characteristics. Gas Turbine Performance Computation. Bibliography.

۴ Performance and Mechanical Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Major Variables for a Gas Turbine Application. Performance Standards. Mechanical Parameters. Application of the Mechanical Standards to the Gas Turbine. Specifications. Bibliography.

۵ Rotor Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

Mathematical Analysis. Application to Rotating Machines. Critical Speed Calculations for Rotor Bearing Systems. Electromechanical Systems and Analogies. Campbell Diagram. Bibliography.

Part II Major Components

۶ Centrifugal Compressors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221

Centrifugal Compressor Components. Centrifugal Compressor Performance. Compressor Surge. Process Centrifugal Compressors. Bibliography.

۷ Axial-Flow Compressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .275

Blade and Cascade Nomenclature. Elementary Airfoil Theory. Laminar-Flow Airfoils Cascade Test. Velocity Triangles. Degree of Reaction. Radial Equilibrium. Diffusion Factor. The Incidence Rule. The Deviation Rule. Compressor Stall. Performance Characteristics of an Axial-Flow Compressor. Stall Analysis of an Axial-Flow Compressor. Bibliography.

۸ Radial-Inflow Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319

Description. Theory. Turbine Design Considerations. Losses in a Radial-Inflow Turbine. Performance of a Radial-Inflow Turbine. Bibliography.

wii

Viii Contents

۹ Axial-Flow Turbines . . . . . .337

Turbine Geometry. Impulse Turbine. The Reaction Turbine. Turbine Blade Cooling Concepts. Turbine Blade Cooling Design. Cooled-Turbine Aerodynamics Turbine Losses. Bibliography.

۱۰ Combustors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

Combustion Terms. Combustion. Combustion Chamber Design. Fuel Atomization and Ignition. Typical Combustor Arrangements. Air Pollution Problems. Catalytic Combustion. Bibliography.

Part Ill Materials Fuel Technology and Fuel Systems

۱۱ Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

General Metallurgical Behaviors in Gas Turbines. Gas Turbine Materials. Compressor Blades. Forgings and Nondestructive Testing. Coatings. Bibliography.

۱۲ Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436

Fuel Specifications. Fuel Properties. Fuel Treatment. Heavy Fuels. Cleaning of Turbine Components. Fuel Economics. Operating Experience. Heat Tracing of Piping Systems. Types of Heat-Tracing Systems. Storage of Liquids. Bibliography.

Part IV Auxiliary Components and Accessories

۱۳ Bearings and Seals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 Bearings. Bearing Design Principles. Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings. Bearing Materials. Bearing and Shaft Instabilities. Thrust Bearings. Factors Affecting Thrust-Bearing Design. ThrustBearing Power Loss. Seals. Noncontacting Seals. Mechanical (Face) Seals. Mechanical Seal Selection and Application. Seal Systems. Associated Oil System. Dry Gas Seals. Bibliography. 14 Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Gear Types. Factors Affecting Gear Design. Manufacturing Processes. Installation and Initial Operation. Bibliography.

Part V Installation Operation and Maintenance

| ۱۵ Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 Basic Oil System. Lubricant Selection. Oil Sampling and Testing. Oil Contamination. Filter Selection. Cleaning and Flushing. Coupling Lubrication. Lubrication Management Program. Bibliography.

۱۶ Spectrum Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558

Vibration Measurement. Taping Data. Interpretation of Vibration Spectra. Subsynchronous Vibration Analysis. Using RTA. Synchronous and Harmonic Spectra. Bibliography. 17 Balancing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584 Rotor Imbalance. Balancing Procedures. Application of Balancing Techniques. User’s Guide for Multiplane Balancing. Bibliography.

۱۸ Couplings and Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .605

Gear Couplings. Metal Diaphragm Couplings. Metal Disc Couplings. Turbomachinery Uprates. Shaft Alignment. Bibliography.

Contents ix

۱۹ Control Systems and instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .634

Control Systems Condition Monitoring Systems. Monitoring Software. Implementation of a Condition Monitoring System. Life Cycle Costs. Temperature Measurement. Pressure Measurement. Vibration Measurement. Auxiliary System Monitoring. The Gas Turbine. Failure Diagnostics. Mechanical Problem Diagnostics Summary. Bibliography.

۲۰ Gas Turbine Performance Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692

Introduction. Performance Codes. Flow Straighteners. Gas Turbine Test. Gas Turbine. Performance Curves. Performance Computations. Gas Turbine Performance Calculations. Plant Losses. Bibliography.

۲۱ Maintenance Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722

Philosophy of Maintenance. Training of Personnel. Tools and Shop Equipment. Turbomachinery Cleaning. Hot-Section Maintenance. Compressor Maintenance. Bearing Maintenance. Coupling Maintenance. Rejuvenation of Used Turbine Blades. Repair and Rehabilitation of Turbomachinery Foundations. Large Machinery Startup Procedure. Typical Problems Encountered in Gas Turbines. Bibliography.

Appendix: Equivalent Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .778

About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799

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