کتاب طراحی لوله های مدفون به زبان انگلیسی مک گروهیل

کتاب طراحی لوله های مدفون به زبان انگلیسی مک گروهیل

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کتاب طراحی لوله های مدفون به زبان انگلیسی مک گروهیل

Contents
Preface to Second Edition ix
Acknowledgments xiii
Chapter 1. Introduction and Overview 1
Soil Mechanics 2
Strength of Materials 4
Pipe Hydraulics 5
Water Systems 6
Wastewater Systems 7
Design for Value 7
Chapter 2. External Loads 9
Soil Pressure 9
Rigid Pipe 10
Flexible Pipe 22
Longitudinal Loading 30
Nonuniform Bedding Support 30
Differential Settlement 32
Ground Movement 32
Wheel Loading (Live Loads) 33
Boussinesq Solution 33
Highway and Railway Loads 35
Aircraft Loads 38
Minimum Soil Cover 38
Soil Subsidence 53
Loads due to Temperature Rise 53
Seismic Loads 54
Wave Passage 55
Permanent Ground Deformation 56
Frost Loading 57
Loads due to Expansive Soils 58

Flotation 58
Soil Wedge 58
Liquefaction 60
Soil Bearing 62
Internal Vacuum 62
References 63
Chapter 3. Design of Gravity Flow Pipes 65
Soils 65
Soil Classes 65
Soil-Pipe Interaction 69
Embedment 71
Compacting Techniques 72
Trench Width 74
Wheel Loads 76
Water Table 76
Soil Particle Migration 76
Voids in the Embedment 77
Heavy Equipment 77
Rigid Pipe Analysis 77
Three-Edge Bearing Strength 77
Bedding Factors and Classifications 78
Installation Design 79
Flexible Pipe Analysis 83
Installation Design 83
Spangler’s Iowa Formula 84
Use of the Constrained Soil Modulus for Flexible Pipe Design 92
Deflection Lag and Creep 94
Watkins’s Soil-Strain Theory 102
Empirical Method 105
Pipe Design Criteria 107
Performance Limits 109
Safety Factors 119
Parallel Pipes and Trenches 121
Rigid Pipes 128
Safety Factors 128
Parallel Trench 128
Vertical Trench Walls 129
Sloped Trench Walls 132
Excavation 133
Analytical Methods for Predicting Performance of Buried Flexible Pipes 136
Introduction 136
Flexible Pipe Design and Analysis 137
Methods for Predicting Pipe Performance 138
Finite Element Methods 146
Introduction 146
Enhancements to the Finite Element Program SSTIPN 148
Analysis Procedure 150
The Computer Code PIPE 151
Enhancements Included in PIPE 158
Example Applications 166
Summary and Conclusions 178
References 179

Chapter 4. Design of Pressure Pipes 183
Pipe Wall Stresses and Strains 183
Hydrostatic Pressure 183
Surge Pressure 186
External Loads 192
Combined Loading 193
Longitudinal Stresses 195
Design Bases 198
Rigid Pipes 198
Flexible Pipes 201
Thrust Restraint 239
Safety Factors 244
References 245
Chapter 5. Rigid Pipe Products 247
Asbestos-Cement Pipe 247
Clay Pipe 257
Concrete Pipe 260
Prestressed Concrete Cylinder Pipe 260
Reinforced Concrete Cylinder Pipe 262
Reinforced Concrete Noncylinder Pipe 264
Pretensioned Concrete Cylinder Pipe 265
AWWA Design of Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe 265
Design Procedure 266
Design Procedure for Rigid Pipe (AWWA C300 and C302 Types) 266
Design Procedure for AWWA C303 Type of Pipe 267
Lined-Cylinder Pipe 270
Embedded-Cylinder Pipe 271
Indirect Methods 272
Three-Edge Bearing Design Criteria 273
The Direct Method 275
Design Strengths for Concrete Pipes 278
Soil-Pipe Interaction Design and Analysis (SPIDA) 281
References 282
Chapter 6. Steel and Ductile Iron Flexible Pipe Products 285
Steel Pipe 285
Corrugated Steel Pipes 285
Tests on Spiral Ribbed Steel Pipe 301
Tests on Low-Stiffness Ribbed Steel Pipe 307
AISI Handbook327
AWWA M11 Steel Pipe—A Guide for Design and Installation 330
Ductile Iron Pipe 337
Testing of Ductile Iron Pipe 341
Methods of Design 365
Prequalification Testing of Pipes Used in Underground Heating
Distribution Systems 368
Introduction 368
Test Protocol 369
References 385

Chapter 7. Plastic Flexible Pipe Products 387
Thermoplastic Pipe Materials 387
Polyvinyl Chloride 387
Long-Term Stress Relaxation and Strain Limit Testing of PVC Pipes 397
Frozen-in Stresses 415
PVC Pressure Pipe 418
Polyethylene (PE) Pipes 459
Handling Factor 461
Long-Term Ductility of Polyethylene Materials 465
The ESCR Test 467
The HDB Requirement for PE 467
The NCTL Test 468
Structural Performance of Buried Profile-Wall HDPE Pipe 469
Performance Limits and Preliminary Design Recommendations for
Profile-Wall HDPE Pipes 501
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Pipes 505
Other Thermoplastic Pipes 507
Thermoset Plastic Pipe 508
Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Pipe 509
References 517
Chapter 8. Pipe Installation and Trenchless Technology 521
Introduction 521
Transportation 521
Trenching 522
Dewatering 525
Pipe Installation 525
Making the Joint 526
Thrust Blocks 527
Pipe-Zone Soil 527
Bedding and Backfill 527
Embedment Density 528
Safety Procedures for Construction and Related Activities 528
Introduction 528
Pipe Storage 528
Shoring and Bracing 529
Hard Hats 530
Lifting 530
Safe Distance 530
Ladders 530
Adequate Means of Trench Exit 530
Edge of Excavation 530
Falling Tools 530
Keep Open Traffic Lanes Clear 530
Posting Barricades and Warning Signs 530
Debris in Excavation 531
Heavy Rains or Freezing Weather 531
Cave-ins 531
Overhanging Bank531
Other Utility Lines 532
Protective Clothing 532

Machines 532
Work Breaks 532
Trenching Machines 532
Blasting Operations 533
Storing Explosives 534
Working in Confined Spaces 535
Trenchless Technology 536
Introduction 536
Design of Pipe Liners 537
Bases for Evaluation of Liners 538
Liners in Broken Casings 538
Legal Liability for Performance 540
Testing of Insituform Pipes 540
Introduction 540
Procedure 540
Test 1 544
Results of Test 1 545
Test 2 548
Results of Test 2 549
Trenchless Technology Methods 549
New Installation Methods 550
Renewal Methods 551
Trenchless Construction Methods (TCMs) 561
Microtunneling 574
Jacking Forces 579
Joints 581
Major Advantages 581
Major Limitations 581
Components of Microtunnel Boring Machine 583
Conclusions 589
References 591

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کتاب طراحی لوله های مدفون به زبان انگلیسی مک گروهیل

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